For many, the fact that April Fools Day has just past is such a relief. This holiday comes once a year on the first day of every April, and is notorious for its pranks and cruel jokes. We have been living through this famous day for as long as we can remember, but do any of us truly know where the one day of year where nobody is safe comes from? Let’s look back at history. The origin of this day is slightly unclear, due to the fact that there are many theories regarding it. One of the most popular theories is the one including Pope George XIII, who ordered in the late 1500’s, possibly 1582, that Christian countries, particularly France, change their calendars to the Roman one. This would mean that the Julian calendar would have to be switched to the Gregorian calendar. With this alteration, the new year would be moved from its original date in the spring on April 1st to it’s new date in the winter on January 1st, which we have adopted as well for our celebration of New Year’s. Due to the fact that it was the 16th century, and there were many who resided in rural areas at the time, it took a while for news to spread that New Years had been moved. There were also those who simply refused to recognize the shift. Anyone who continued to celebrate the old New Year’s date was classified as “April Fools,” which is where we get the holiday’s name from. Spring celebrators were mocked, and had paper fish stuck onto their backs without their knowledge, which symbolized an “easy to catch fish,” or a gullible person, also called “Poisson D’Avril” in French. America is not the only country who has a day in the year specifically dedicated to silliness. India celebrates a spring festival called Holi, in which people play jokes and throw dyes at each other. Iran celebrates the holiday of Sizdah Bedar, in which pranks are also played on April 1st. According to the Museum of Hoaxes, “It’s more likely that April Fool’s Day resembles these other celebrations because they’re all manifestations of a deeper pattern of folk behavior — an instinct to respond to the arrival of spring with festive mischief and symbolic misrule,” and I couldn’t agree more with this statement.
Famed cosmologist and physicist Stephen Hawking will travel aboard Virgin Galactic into outer space.
The news was revealed when he was interviewed on Good Morning Britain, where he stated that Richard Branson, who founded the Virgin Group, offered to take him to space for free, and he “said yes immediately.” At 75, he will be the second-oldest person to ever travel to space, after Buzz Aldrin, who was 77 at the time of his historic trip to the moon. In addition, he will be the very first person with ALS (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis) to travel to space. In most cases of ALS, affected people do not live within five years of the disease’s beginning. However, Hawking was diagnosed at 21, and although he is paralyzed, he is completely alive and well 50 years later. He communicates using a cheek muscle attached to a communication device.
In 2014, Virgin Galactic’s spacecraft, the VSS Enterprise, suffered an accident in the Mojave Desert that killed one of their pilots and injured another. Since then, they have been working to develop safer and better commercial spacecraft and hope to bring people to space via commercial flights in the near future. The date on which Hawking will go to space is currently unknown.
In the interview, he compared the joy of being able to go to space to the joy his three children bring him. He also discussed President Donald Trump, who he had called a demagogue on a previous occasion. Although America “is still a place I like and admire in many ways, I fear that I may not be welcome,” he said. He also believes that Scott Pruitt, the head of the Environmental Protection Agency, should be replaced. “Climate change is one of the great dangers we face, and it’s one we can prevent,” he said. Trump has stated multiple times that he thinks climate change is a hoax.
Hawking’s trip to space won’t be his first time in a low-gravity environment. In 2007, he went on a zero-gravity flight on a Boeing 727 jet, which he greatly enjoyed, and he is excited to experience it again. “I thought no one would take me,” Hawking said of finally having the ability to achieve his lifelong dream.
March 21st marks the first day of the vernal equinox, also known as spring in the Northern Hemisphere. To Iranians, this begins Nowruz (Translation: New Day), also known as the new year. This holiday originates from the Zoroastrian religion, dating back to the early Persian empire, and is widely celebrated by Iranians of all faiths. As part of the Persian tradition during the new year, a table is set up called Haft Seen (Translation: 7 S’s). This table typically consists of foods, which start with the letter S in the persian language (sprouts, dried fruit, apples garlic, pudding, vinegar, crushed sumac berries), as well as goldfish put in a clear bowl. Each item placed on the table symbolizes one’s wishes for the new year, such as growth, love, beauty, health, fertility, patience, and wisdom. Goldfish in particular symbolize good luck, good fortune, and life.
On March 20th, Sam Mojabi went to a local Petco shop to purchase goldfish for the holiday. When he asked a sales associate for goldfish, his ethnicity was question. Once Mojabi mentioned he was of Persian descent, the sales associate systematically denied him the sale. Shocked, he asked why, and the only response he was provided was that it was a decision made by headquarters, even after mentioning that he had intentions of taking great care of the fish. Mojabi later found out that his sister Samira was also denied the sale at another Petco location during the same month. Outraged, they filed a lawsuit with their attorney Henrik Sardarbegian for civil rights violations and a violation of the state Business and Professions Code. “During this time, Petco stores specifically declined the sale of goldfish to Persians and those of Iranian background,” the suit alleges. Petco and its management “sent out memorandum commanding its retail staff to decline the sale of such fish to Persians,” the suit also alleges. Their attorney argued, “Petco’s refusal to sell goldfish to Persians may have arisen from a mistaken belief that people intend to kill the fish. They [Persians] absolutely do not harm the fish. People want the fish to live as long as possible, because the longer a family keeps the fish alive, the more fortune and life is brought to them during the year.” Their attorney also argued that people who were not Persian were not asked their intent before being allowed to buy goldfish, specifically saying, “Right now, a 15-year-old boy who wants to buy a goldfish to feed to his snake could go and buy one.” The only response provided by Petco was, “We [Petco] have a strong commitment to animal welfare and responsible pet ownership and we do not tolerate discrimination of any sort. While we do not comment on pending litigation, we are looking into the specifics, if any, of this claim.” The Mojabi’s attorney fired back, saying that Petco’s policy also has “tended to cause discontent, animosity, harm, resentment or envy among the various cultures, and is especially troubling, arbitrary and invidious at a time when our nation and its citizens are working harder than ever to mend racial and cultural divisions across the country.”
The lawsuit was settled on October 12th, with no further details released. Petco no longer has a store policy of denying the sale of goldfish to Persians on the first day of spring. Like attorney Sardarbegian said, denying those of Iranian and Persian background the right to buy goldfish for the celebration of the Iranian New Year is “illegal and repugnant,” and is just as bad as charging women and blacks higher prices for merchandise than men and whites, or as denying sales of items to gays that heterosexuals are allowed to buy. Although there are still animal rights organizations which have objected to the tradition, claiming the fish die after the celebration due to health problems or the shock of being turned loose into streams or ponds, thankfully the holiday and its traditions of more than 3000 years are still peacefully and safely celebrated.
You’ve probably heard of Edward Norton. You probably only know him as that actor in Fight Club and Birdman and not as that philanthropist and environmental activist.
Known for his humility, he has even gone so far to say, “If I ever have to stop taking the subway, I’m gonna have a heart attack”. Edward Harrison Norton was born on August 18th, 1969 to Edward Mower Norton Jr. and Lydia Robinson. His father Edward Mower Norton Jr., was a marine lieutenant in Vietnam, an environmental lawyer and federal prosecutor under the Carter administration. His father is what inspired him to be an environmentalist.
Norton has given millions of dollars towards clean energy and charities for more affordable housing in low income communities. He is a user of solar energy and driver of a car with a hydrogen internal combustion engine vehicle. He is on the board of trustees of Enterprise Community Partners, a non-profit developer for affordable housing in his hometown and a major supporter of BP’s Solar Neighbors program. He is the president of the American branch of the Maasai Wildlife Conservation Trust. He has also appeared in ads against buying elephant ivory, the “say no” campaign.
“People say you can’t make movies about your politics, or the environment. And, generally speaking, I completely divide those sides of my brain,” says Norton. He is also very politically active. He was a major supporter of former New York Governor Eliot Spitzer and a staunch opponent of Donald Trump during the 2016 election. He says the reason he is so opposed to Trump is because he “cares about the future of his kids”. He also produced the HBO documentary The Election of Barack Obama: By The People. It is a documentary that follows Obama and his campaign team for the two years prior to his election.
Edward Norton is not only of of the great actors of his generation, he is also a great person and role model.
If anyone is asked what year it is, they would probably answer “2017.” But our history as humans goes much farther back than the year 0. Humans have existed for millions of years, and we have been making major achievements for thousands. What if we were to make a new calendar to accurately depict the length of our history? If so, where would we place to 0?
“Kurzgesagt – In a Nutshell,” a YouTube channel run by a small group of people dedicated to producing educational “content that has value and that people actually notice and remember,” brought up this idea in a video titled “A New History for Humanity – The Human Era.” However, it has been an idea for over 20 years before this video was released. In 1993, scientist Cesare Emiliani proposed an idea of a new calendar – one that places its first year at the beginning of what he calls the “Human Era,” where we started building our world to suit our needs on top of the existing one, when we turned from hunter-gatherers to farmers. But what event marks the beginning of this “Human Era?”
About 12,000 years ago, hundreds of hunter-gatherers came together in the hills of Anatolia, or the area we call Turkey today, and started the world’s first construction project. Göbekli Tepe, which means “Potbelly Hill” in Turkish, was a temple made with circles of huge stone pillars, each being up to six meters tall and weighing approximately twenty tons. They were decorated with carvings of pictograms, some resembling animals and others mythical creatures. These early humans had only wood and stone tools, and knew nothing about metalworking or agriculture. To this day, we have no idea how they built this. It is believed to have been a temple dedicated to long-forgotten gods, but the one thing we know for sure is that this temple was the first of its kind.
From there, humans made huge progress that we seemingly ignore with the Gregorian calendar. It makes our history seem much shorter than it actually is. Thinking about it with this Holocene calendar, 2,000 years is just a sliver of our actual history. So, next time you look at your calendar, consider changing that year to 12,017. Don’t underestimate the extent of human history.
One of the greatest highlights of Super Bowl Sunday is putting everyone’s differences aside, gathering in front of the TV, and watching a bunch of puppies run around a tiny football field. While some may enjoy watching actual humans play football, others choose to watch the canine version, known as the Puppy Bowl. The Puppy Bowl began in 2005 and was originally conceived to be like the Yule Log, filming puppies playing around with dog toys in a small football field for twelve straight hours. However, the program garnered an unexpected 5.8 million viewers. Since then, the Puppy Bowl went from a simple program to a full-on annual event, and went through many changes. For example, the Puppy Bowl is still aired on Animal Planet for twelve hours, but much of that time is spent on the pregame or on replaying the Bowl. It is initially aired from 3 to 5 p.m. so that it does not conflict with the Super Bowl. Many new features have been added throughout the years, such as the Kitten Halftime Show, a Dairy Queen-sponsored Kiss Cam, animal cheerleaders (such as rabbits, guinea pigs, and chickens), a live-tweeting bird named Meep, and competition between Teams Ruff and Fluff, which has been in place for three years so far. It is also sponsored by many companies, from Geico to Subaru to Pedigree. The Bowl is pre-recorded three months in advance and shot for two full days, so what viewers see on television is only the best of what happened during the shoot. Nowadays, the event often gets over ten million viewers each year and is one of Animal Planet’s most-watched events.
This year, the Puppy Bowl made significant history in many ways. Team Fluff ended Team Ruff’s two-year winning streak, beating them for the first time with an unprecedented ninety-three points. Tucker, an Australian Shepherd mix and the captain of Team Fluff, took home the Lombarky Trophy, one of the many new additions of this year’s Bowl. Some other new features included mascots for each of the teams (a screech owl for Ruff and a chinchilla for Fluff) and the inclusion of three dogs with special needs: Winston, a hearing and sight impaired Australian Shepherd; Doobert, a deaf English Pointer; and Lucky, a three-legged terrier who was also the recipient of the Underdog Award. A Cocker Spaniel/Bichon Frise mix named Nikita also made history by becoming the first dog to use the referee’s flag to score a touchdown, and she also scored two other touchdowns and one field goal. She was a strong contender for MVP (Most Valuable Pup), yet lost to a Poodle mix named Rory who scored three touchdowns early on in the game.
All of the puppies that participate in the Puppy Bowl are living in either shelters or foster homes and are seeking a “forever home.” The ultimate goal is to get all of the participating puppies adopted every year, and oftentimes this goal has been achieved. This year, Animal Planet has brought attention to dogs with special needs, reminding viewers that they are no less worthy of adoption than their able-bodied peers. Although most of the dogs who compete have already been adopted before the Bowl airs, people can still adopt their siblings if they are still available for adoption. But overall, adopting any puppy from a shelter is important. When Animal Planet puts adorable, adoptable puppies on the small screen, it raises awareness of animal adoption and prompts people to adopt dogs in need of a loving home.
There are countless amounts of animals that will make your heart melt: puppies, kittens, the list goes on and on. What is your favorite animal? What if I told you that there is a 30-50% of all species are heading towards extinction by this mid century. According to research conducted by conservation scientist, David Wilcove estimates that there are 14,000 to 35,000 endangered species in the United States. Below are my favorite beauties of this world that are sadly decreasing in population as we speak.
Elephants (African and Asian)
These majestic creatures are the largest mammals on Earth. They are indigenous to Sub-Saharan Africa and SouthEast Asia. As many as 100,000 African elephants were reportedly killed between 2010 and 2012. Threats that are imposed upon the elephant population include poaching and illegal trade of ivory tusks. These beautiful creatures are slowly losing their habitats, because of their size they are forced to places where they can not survive. In Thailand, elephant rides are a popular tourist attraction. In reality these rides “break” elephants both physically and emotionally. Their spines are not made to carry the weight of humans which paralyses them over time. Emotionally? They are abused and driven to insanity by isolation.
Polar bears are marine mammals indigenous to the Arctic. Their population is rapidly decreasing ultimately because of the environment. This causes a shift in the ecosystem. Polar ice caps melting leaving many of the bears swimming for their lives in search of other caps. Though these amazing creatures can swim a great distance (30 miles) ice caps are becoming harder to find which results in polar bears drowning in the sea. Another reason for their endangerment is the lack of food. Polar bears spend 50% of their lives searching for food, but less than 2% of their hunts are successful.
What you can do to help
- Do not buy ivory! New ivory is strictly banned, but antique ivory can be legally available for purchase
- Adopt an elephant/polar bear
- Go green
- Conserve water
The SAT is a standardized test predominately used for college admissions in the United States. It was first introduced in 1926, although it has been updated several times in order to conform with mercurial cultural beliefs regarding standardized testing. The test has a dissonant history of progressive aspirations with prejudicial undertones; its first iteration was designed by Carl Brigham, a proponent of eugenics, who wanted to eliminate the role of socioeconomic testing biases in admissions.
The first College Board exam, given to 973 students across the United States, was administered in 1901. The exam contained sections on English, classical languages, chemistry, and physics. It consisted of a series of essay responses and was rated on a subjective scale from “very poor” to “excellent”. The first SAT exam was administered much later, in 1926, to over 8,000, primarily male students. Test takers were given about 90 minutes to answer 315 questions. The test was split into many sections with abstruse names such as “artificial language”. There were so many sections, in fact, that in 1928 they actually had to decrease the number of verbal sections to 7. A year later they reduced this number to 6. In the same period of time, the time limit was increased to roughly 2 hours and math was eliminated from the test entirely. From this point forward, the mean score was intended to be 500, with a standard deviation of 100 points. Verbal test scores were linked by equating current scores to those obtained in 1941. The same was done with math scores obtained, when they were re-introduced, in 1942. Thus, the average SAT score was intended to be about 1,000.
This method of “equating” scores later backfired as the mean SAT score began to steadily decline during the 1960’s. During this period of time, the number of SAT tests taken doubled; thus, some attributed the score decline to shifts in demography. Yet, various studies have concluded that other unknown factors contributed to the decline in SAT scores, especially after 1970. Several important changes were made to the test during the 90’s, by which time the average SAT score had dropped to 900. Reading comprehension questions were further emphasized, in an attempt to reduce the importance of crystallized vocabulary in SAT scores. Plans to mandate an essay along with the exam were dropped due to dissent from minority groups, who believed that the essay would accompany an increase in test cost. It was finally decided that scores would no longer be equated to those achieved in the 1940’s, due to increasing discrepancies between a student’s raw score (# of questions correct) and scaled score (section score out of 800).
Although this correction decreased the aforementioned discrepancy, it was accompanied by a disproportionate increase in the number of students achieving a perfect score. Thus, this was corrected by slightly increasing the test’s difficulty and adding a writing section. This produced the 2400 composite score that many of us are familiar with. Score choice, an option that allows students to select which College Board exams to send to college, was made universal in 2009. In recent years, students have been required to submit photo ID, typically an admissions ticket, in order to enter their testing centers. An admissions ticket typically consists of your name, birthdate, test you intend to take, along with other identifying information including a photo. The College Board has very stringent requirements for many elements of these photos, such as facial expression and the subject’s distance from the camera, amongst other things.
Another major overhaul produced the most recent iteration of the SAT exam, which was first administered earlier this year, primarily to members of the class of 2017. Previously, a quarter of a point was deducted from a student’s raw score for each incorrect answer; now, students simply miss out on the opportunity to “gain” points; and the score is once again out of 1600. The test has also introduced new “cross-test” scores, presumed to indicate proficiency in areas such as “Analysis in Science”. The writing section, which was unpopular among many admissions offices and students alike, has been eliminated; although, in reality it seems to have been conjoined with the critical reading section. The essay is now optional, and a list of colleges requiring it for admissions can be found here: http://bit.ly/1K9X7Wg.
After skimming through this dull recitation of the various arbitrary changes made to a test that is heavily weighed in college admissions, you may be wondering: why is this test so important to colleges? Why is it necessary? Originally, the test was actually an IQ test in disguise. In fact, high scores on an SAT exam administered before 2005 may qualify you for entry into MENSA. Although this is no longer entirely the case with newer iterations of the SAT, it is clear that IQ and socioeconomic status strongly correlate with your composite score. These truths are often implicit, but rarely stated directly. Instead, the exam is alleged to “complement” the predictive value of high school GPA. Studies estimate that, although the SAT alone could explain ~13% of the variance in SAT scores, high school GPA alone can explain ~15%; when high school GPA is combined with SAT subject test scores ~22% of college success can be accounted for, but factoring in the regular SAT adds very little (0.1%) predictive value.
Thus, it is likely that SAT subject test scores in conjunction with high school GPA might better predict “college success”. It is interesting to note that colleges actually benefit more from recruiting students with potential for future success, not necessarily students who are likely to have “college success”. Smart people like Bill Gates garner lots of prestige and money for a school, regardless of whether they graduate; as do pro-athletes, entertainers, etc. Fratboys, stereotypically the least intelligent college students, actually donate the most of any group to their respective alma maters. Thus, assessments of intelligence, athleticism, and philanthropic spirit may override concerns about “college success”.
In conclusion, the regular SAT is an arbitrarily contrived standardized test that purports to predict college success, but is more likely an intelligence test in disguise and thus provides colleges with a socially acceptable metric to gauge how potential students might benefit their alma mater as alumni. College ranking services, such as the U.S News & World Report, have perverted admissions in recent years by rewarding colleges for rejecting applicants– who now compete with an increasing number of international competitors that will likely return home once they complete their studies–and maintaining artificially high test standardized scores among their students. All of this distracts from the true, noble purpose of college: education.
Have you ever wondered who the CEO of Google is? Well, his name is Sundar Pichai and he wants to change the world. He was born in Madurai, Tamil, India. He lived most of his childhood in Chennai. His father was an electrical engineer at GE. His father owned a two room apartment in Chennai, and Sundar Pichai grew up in this apartment. He received his degree from Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur in Metallurgical Engineering. Later, he came to U.S to study at Stanford University.
He started to work at Google in 2004. He was working on incorporating Google as the default search engine on the toolbar in Internet Explorer and Firefox. He took over the Chrome project and brought it to the world in 2008. He was a major contributor to the creation of Google Drive and Chrome OS. He was put in charge of Android and is working on mobile carriers.
Currently, he is working on artificial intelligence, and how it can change the way we ask questions. Larry Page, one of the co-founders of Google, had a dream that questions could be answered before being asked. It sounds weird, but think of the possibilities. For example, an A.I. assistant might say, “Father’s Day is coming up– here are some ideas.” These helpful tips would occur even before you asked about Father’s Day. With inventions like that, the future for Sundar Pichai seems endless. He is in charge of so many projects from Google, many of which can change the world.
We’ve all seen Pixar movies. I’m not saying we’ve all liked them, but we’ve all seen at least one. They create multiple universes that we could only dream of, but what if they weren’t multiple universes? What if they all took place in the same universe? What if they all existed on the same timeline? That’s a lot of ‘what if’s’, but there’s an answer that explains it all: The Pixar Theory.
The Pixar Theory suggests that every Pixar movie ever made takes place in the same universe, and on one giant timeline. The theory was developed in 2013 by Jon Negroni, a writer/blogger who has written articles about the theory for websites like Huffington Post, Mashable, Slate, and Moviepilot, and that’s only a few of them. He even has a podcast, a book, and a serial novel called, The Pixar Detective. This complex and amazing theory will contain multiple spoilers for these movies, so you’ve been warned. Now, get ready to go to “Infinity and beyond!”
The Theory’s timeline had originally started with Brave and ended with Monsters Inc. or Brave again, depending how you look at it. Set in the dark ages of Scotland, Brave is the only Pixar movie that explains why animals in Pixar movies will sometimes act like humans. When the main character of the movie, Merida, meets a witch and asks her to use magic to change her fate, her mother is turned into a bear. We also see the witch disappearing each time she passes through a door, making us believe that she may not exist. This information may seem strange and irrelevant now, but it’ll make sense later. Back to Brave: Merida’s mother is restored to her human form by the end of the movie, but we learn that this magic has been used on one other person: turning the person into a bear, with a more permanent result. While these are the only two cases in the movie, it’s safe to assume that the witch has used the magic on other animals before. Over the coming centuries, the objects and animals that were experimented on would evolve, thus creating a power struggle between humans, animals, and machines.
The three movies in the human-animal relationship are Ratatouille, Finding Nemo, and Up, in that order. You may have noticed I’ve left out A Bug’s Life, but I’ll explain later on. In Ratatouille, we see Ramy the rat’s desire to cook. Even though he’s a better chef than pretty much any human, cooking is only done by humans. By the end of the film, he finds his way to success when he befriends a small group of humans. But the villain of the movie, Chef Skinner, just disappears. Where he went we’ll never know, but what if his knowledge of the animal intelligence were to make its way to Charles Muntz, the villain of Up? In learning about animal intelligence, Muntz creates the dog collars and realizes that dogs are smarter than expected. The dogs are set free by the end of the movie since Muntz has died, and again, we don’t know all the details, but as the humans begin to cross the line, we see the animals increasingly resenting humans. To develop new technology, the see the humans enter an industrial revolution. We see it in the beginning of Up, as the faceless corporation Buy-n-Large (BNL) forces Carl to give up his house. Sound familiar? Buy-n-Large is the corporation that takes over earth in Wall-E and forces the whole human population to evacuate to space. Still not ringing any bells? If not, you can watch “History of BNL” to refresh your memory. Oh, and don’t forget that you can use BNL batteries to power your Buzz Lightyear, or to read BNL’s news article about the sea in Finding Nemo! Coincidence? I think not. The movie focuses most on the animal’s perspective is Finding Nemo, which adds to the evidence of the hatred of animals and humans.
Moving on to humans versus machines, The Incredibles is the first movie that introduces artificial intelligence. Syndrome,the villain of the film, commits mass genocide on all the superheroes using an A.I. called the Omnidroid, until it goes rogue and starts killing everyone. This raises the question as to why machines want to get rid of humans in the first place. We know that animals dislike humans because the humans are destroying the earth, but what motives do the machines have?
That’s where Toy Story comes in: we then see how toys are used and discarded. And over the span of the three movies, we see how toys start displaying resentment towards their past owners. In Toy Story we see Buzz and Woody rise up against Sid, in Toy Story 2 we see how Jesse hates her old owner, Emily, for donating her, and by Toy Story 3, Lotso just despises the human race. Despite all this hatred, the toys need humans for energy and fulfillment. I’m not saying the toys are 100% machines, but maybe they are an evolved form of the A.I. from The Incredibles. It’s possible considering that The Incredibles takes place sometime in the 1950’s or 60’s, 40-50 years before the events of the of Toy Story (1990 – 2010). This also gives the A.I.’s time to rise up and create Buy-n-Large. The creation of Buy-n-Large triggers an industrial revolution, which eventually leads to the pollution of Earth. In a last ditch effort to save the human race, the machines put all the humans on the Axiom and sent them to space. Once on the spaceship the machines make sure that the humans have to depend on them for everything, treating the humans like they had treated the machines, like toys.
With the humans and most of the animals gone machines are left to take populate Earth, this is the era in which Cars and Cars 2 (and Planes, but I’m not going into that since it’s the same concept) takes place. Some people have argued that Cars couldn’t take place during this time because there’s no sign of pollution during any of the movies, but by looking closely at Wall-E, we don’t see the world during this time period, so we don’t know how polluted the world is. We do know that humans have existed in the past, because of the places visited in Cars 2: Europe and Japan. The next question is, how did Wall-E become the last robot on Earth? We don’t exactly know how the machines died but it’s safe to assume that they simply died off from lack of an energy source, and because they became so disconnected from humans. That’s how Wall-E is different: he remembers the time where machines and humans lived in peace before the pollution. Even though it’s been 800 years since the humans left, his fascination with human culture and friendship with a cockroach is what helps him maintain his personality and find fulfillment. It’s the reason why and how he pretty much saves humanity and rebuilds society. So what happens next? The answer is A Bug’s Life, yes this movie takes place after the apocalypse. In the end, credits of Wall-E we see the tree from the movie being planted and how it grows and it looks very similar to the main tree in A Bug’s Life. Plus, there aren’t many humans left, hence why they wouldn’t be in the movie. The bugs have cities, their own machines, bars, they know what a Bloody Mary is, and even a traveling circus, which shows us that humans had an influence on their culture and evolution.
Speaking of species evolving, we are left with monsters. Where could they of come from? Its very possible to believe that they were animal who were mutated by disease and evolved enough to replace the humans. Some have pointed out that the college in Monsters University was founded in 1313, but it’s possible that the monsters could’ve started their own calendar. That would make sense as to why it’s so dangerous for monsters to have any form of human contact, the doors they use bring them to the past, thus not wanting to face the effects of changing the past. They also rely heavily on humans screams for energy, much like the A.I.’s. That’s until Boo comes along and changes everything, and in a way, starts everything. After her adventure with Sully and Mike, all she wants to do is get back to “Kitty”. As she grows up, she searches for ways to reunite with Sully and along the way she goes back in time and discovers magic. Using this magic, she becomes a witch, the witch from Brave, to be exact. As I mentioned earlier, we see the Witch disappearing though doors, much like how monster to visit children. If that doesn’t convince you, The witch is also seen making wood carvings of the Pizza Planet truck from Toy Story, turns people into bears because they resemble Sully, and probably the most obvious we see she also has a drawing of Sully in her house in Brave. Thus making Boo’s love for Sully is the foundation of the Pixar Universe, showing that love of different people, ages, machines, and even species finding ways to live on earth in peace. That is the Pixar Theory.
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